Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries in Europe, measured by work-related injuries, illnesses, disabilities and deaths. Statistics and studies show great differences in national injury and illness rates, as well as approaches and support for prevention of these adverse outcomes. Only few successful interventions have been found in systematic reviews. Understanding of the determinants of safety culture is lacking and consequently, well-informed actions to improve health, safety and risk management cannot be made. This Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action explores reasons why agriculture lags behind other sectors, and why some countries have been more successful than others in reducing agricultural injuries and illnesses. This COST Action will 1) evaluate health and safety programmes and approaches on the national level, 2) identify knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and priorities among farmers regarding safety, health and risk management, 3) identify effective measures for training and integrating vulnerable populations (including refugees) into the agricultural workforce, 4) develop means and indicators for monitoring progress and evaluating the impact of interventions on injuries and illnesses in agriculture, and 5) disseminate results to stakeholders and the agricultural community. This COST Action will produce benchmarked and evidence-based recommendations to inform and guide national initiatives and efforts. The results will be made available to the scientific community, policy makers, vocational training, administrative and insurance personnel, farmers and practitioners working towards better social sustainability and safety culture in agriculture.