Ocean waves that bring to the coast large amounts of energy supplied to the water masses in remote areas are the key players in a variety of scientific disciplines and practical applications. While their importance for offshore issues (ship traffic, offshore engineering, etc.) is widely recognised, even more important is the impact of waves in the nearshore and especially upon the coast. The related issues cover a variety of scales, from gradual degradation of coasts under the impact of wind waves approaching from unfortunate directions over extensive erosion of sedimentary coasts in rough wave and high water level conditions up to extreme devastations caused by 2004 Boxing Day or 2011 Tohuku (Sendai) tsunami. These recent events demonstrated that the wave hazard itself and the importance of its proper estimation are beyond any doubts. Moreover, it has become evident that specifically extreme events should be accounted for in the probability schemes and hazard maps. This concerns not only tsunami, but also the possibility of extremely rough wave conditions occurring at times, as it was the case during the 2005 storm Gudrun, where some sea areas were affected much more strongly than others. The central aim of this study is to establish a reliable estimate of extreme wave conditions and potentially associated extreme single wave events in Estonian coastal waters and to provide a probabilistic map of their impact on coasts, which will be achieved using a combination of mathematical methods, numerical simulations, statistical analysis of historical data and high-resolution in situ wave measurements in the nearshore. The intention is to bring together existing knowledge about the Baltic Sea wave climatology with the information extracted from high-resolution time series of water surface and state-of-the-art methods for the identification and analysis of extreme events and in order to develop site-specific applications for coastal engineering and coastal zone management.