This project is devoted to the West and East European (French, Italian, German, Estonian, Czech and Russian) as well as North American context of Juri Lotman’s ideas in synchronic and diachronic aspects, including the prospects for their development provided by modern information and computer technologies (ICT). The main goal is to pay more attention to understudied aspects of the background of Lotman’s Tartu and Moscow School of Semiotics (TMS), and to demonstrate the School’s role as an intermediary between “Western” and “Eastern” intellectual communities. The main objects of the study are as follows. 1) Formalism: Opoyaz and the Moscow Linguistic Circle (MLC); Roman Jakobson as member of Opoyaz and the first Chairman of MLC, and his influence on TMS. 2) Lotman’s articles on the exact methods in the humanities. Boris Jarkho of MLC, whose works were published in Sign Systems Studies (Tartu) by Mikhail Gasparov in the 1960s. Prospects for Jarkho’s project of total quantification of literary studies in the context of ICT developments. 3) Structuralism: Jakobson and the Prague Linguistic Circle; Lotman’s work on Jan Muka?ovsk?. 4) Post-structuralism: Mikhail Bakhtin and his interpreters in France; “intertextuality” in Kristeva and Roland Barthes, and the notion of “polygenetism” in the works of Zara Mints; Bakhtin’s position between his followers and TMS. 5) Cultural anthropology and semiotics: Claude Lévy-Strauss, Thomas A. Sebeok, Umberto Eco, and their unpublished correspondence with Lotman. 6) Anti-formalists: Wladimir Weidlé’s critique of Jakobson’s and Lotman’s structural methods; Dell Hymes’ critique of Lotman’s semiotics of culture. 7) Controversy on TMS initiated by Boris Gasparov. Controversy on Lotman and Marxism initiated by Mikhail Gasparov. The results of the project will be implemented as articles and a monograph, pre-published in a digital form on World Wide Web. The materials may also be delivered as lectures for undergraduate and postgraduate students.