The assessment of the competition law enforcement practices in the new Member States demonstrated the need for more research to be carried out on the application of competition rules in small transition economies, such as the majority of the new Member States. The experiences of the candidate countries with “copy-pasting” of the EU competition rules in small, highly concentrated, emerging economies have provoked strong criticisms concerning the functionality of this approach. Therefore, there is an articulated need for the critical approach to the application of the EU competition rules and standards on the domestic level, where blind transplantation should be questioned and new custom-made models taking into account the specifics of the domestic economies to be developed. The proposed project focused on the application of the EU competition rules and standards in the context of a small market economy in the case of Estonia is expected to have a multidimensional contribution to the development of legal science and public policy in the field of protection and promotion of competition on the domestic and Internal Market and the competitiveness of the economy. The first dimension is national and regional: the proposed research shall provide a critical assessment of the competition enforcement in Estonia and contribute to the development of the domestic rules and policies. The second dimension is EU-wide because the proposed research shall stimulate the discourse on the future development of the EU competition rules and policies. The third dimension of the project is extra-EU or international one, because the new knowledge generated as a result of the proposed research can be applied in the candidate countries that are continuously adapting their competition rules following the EU model and other non-EU jurisdictions that are searching for models that would fit the economic realities of their domestic markets.