In modern societies the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing and it becomes increasingly important to deal with the issues related to ageing. The key issues include decline in people's information processing abilities, health, daily functioning and well-being. Importantly, there are substantial individual differences in these outcomes. Understanding the predictors and mechanisms of these individual differences is important for working out effective means of promoting successful ageing. My post-doctoral research will focus on the predictors of individual differences in late-life cognitive decline, functional status, health and emotional well-being. In particular, I will investigate the role of different forms of social, intellectual and physical engagement. In much of the previous research it has been difficult to separate true casual effects of these factors from the effect of life-long intelligence causing all the interrelated predictors and outcomes. The strength of my research will be the inclusion of early cognitive ability as potentially important co-variate. I will also focus on the predictive and moderating role of personality traits in the key ageing outcomes. To date, there is relatively little comprehensive research in this area. The post-doctoral research will be based on two unique datasets available in Scotland (Scottish Mental Surveys; SMS). Two Scottish birth cohorts (1921 and 1936) were tested in their childhood with respect to general intelligence. During the follow-up studies in the last decade subsets of the cohorts have been thoroughly and longitudinally investigated. There are already tens of influential scientific reports based on the SMS data but much of the work remains to be done. The work will be done in the research group of Professor Ian Deary, a leading rehearser on intelligence, cognitive ageing and cognitive epidemiology, and the coordinator of the SMS follow-up studies.