Projekti eesmärgid. Selgitada otsekülvi rakendamisvõimalusi erinevates Eesti agroklimaatilistes tingimustes. Selgitada künnilt otsekülvile ülemineku majanduslikke ja ökoloogilisi aspekte. Täpsustada mitmeid otsekülvi rakendamisega seotud tegureid (kül-visenormid, agregaatide ja muldade sobivus, jne). Selgitada otsekülvi mõju mulla ja taimeosade mikrobioloogilisele seisundile ning põllu üldisele fütosanitaarsele seisundile. Selgitada erinevate viljelusmeetodite kasutusvõimalusi kasvuhoonegaaside (KHG) emissiooni leevendamiseks. Selgitada prognoositavate kliimamuutuste mõju põllukultuuride omahinnale uuritavate viljelusmeetodite korral.
The aims of project. To explain possibility to use direct drilling in different agroclimatic conditions in Estonia. To explain eco-logic and economic aspects related to transition from ploughing to the direct drilling. To define several aspects related to using of direct drilling (seed rate per hectare, suitability of machines and soils etc). To explain the impact of direct drilling on the microbi-ological situation of soil and plant parts. To explain possibility to use cultivation methods for abating emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). To explain the impact of predictable climate changes on the prime cost of crop production in the case of cultivation methods studied in this project.
Trial places were mostly on production fields of different farms in 9 Estonian region. Presented were winter wheat, spring wheat, spring barley, oat and winter rapeseed. The soil texture was loamy sand and light sandy loam. Soil bulk density in layers 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. In deepest layer the density was higher by tilled soil(TS). From same samples were determined amount of waterproof particles in soil. There were more water-resistant particles (0,25-1mm) in TS. Soil salinity and moisture by volume were measured with the percometer. The no-tilled soils (NTS) saved more moisture, and the difference is higher in water deficit. In spring before fertilisation there was less soil salinity in TS and after fertilisation nutrients moved faster to deeper layers of TS. Microbiological activity was clearly lower in 10-20cm than in 0-10cm for NTS. The difference in the TS was not so clear. The average weed pressure was higher on NTS. The average weed seed reserve in soil was bigger in NTS. Disease and pest pressure on trial fields had no difference. The number of snails was higher on fields where no-till was used 10 a. The yield contamination with mycotoxins had no difference. Content of pesticide residues were determined in soils and mulch. There was no difference. Activity of soil macrofauna, mesofauna and microfauna were were used to evaluate biodiversity of soils. There was no difference. The situation was good or moderate in all fields. The grain yield was higher for NTS than TS – 4860 and 4530 kg ha-1. The biggest difference had winter wheat which had in NTS 1389 kg ha-1 higher yield than in TS. The average cost of production was almost equal for NTS and TS both: 649 and 641 EUR ha-1. The cost of production was equal for NTS and TS both: 158 and 157 EUR ha-1. The net income was higher in NTS for winter wheat and oat, and in TS for spring wheat and spring barley. The overview was given about tillage method influence on GHG emissions.