Growth Hormone-Chorionic Somatomammotropin (GH/CSH) cluster of related genes is located on chromosome 17 (17q24.2) and includes human growth hormone gene (GH1), the chorionic somatomammotrophin-A and –B (human placental lactogen) genes (CSH1 and CSH2), the placental growth hormone gene (GH2) and a CSH-related gene (CSHL1). There is evidence showing that the GH cluster (GH1, CSH1, CSH2, GH2 and SCHL1) has a genetic role in the relationship between early growth and adult disease. GH1 is directly involved in growth and metabolism, and the other genes in the cluster play an important role in the regulation of glucose supply to the fetus and in fetal growth regulation. Low birth weight and slow growth in infancy may lead to increased risk of adult diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. This observation has been explained by programming of an individual’s adult metabolism during in utero development. It has been proposed that common genetic variants which increase insulin resistance may predispose both to low insulin-mediated growth in utero and insulin resistance in adulthood. Pituitary GH contributes to the maintenance of glucose metabolism as a transcriptional regulator for IGF1. The placenta-expressed CSH1, SCH2 and GH2 genes have key roles in the regulation of fetal glucose supply and growth as well as maternal metabolism, and are candidates for the developing of insulin resistance during pregnancy. The main hypothesis of the study is that genetic variation across the hGH/CSH region has an impact on growth and metabolism in utero and in early infancy, and on the susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The project aims to investigate the association between genetic variants in the GH/CSH cluster genes and susceptibility to cardiovascular disease European (Estonians, HYPEST samples, Czech, CADCZ samples) and Volga-Ural (Bashkirs, Tatars) populations.